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ESL Teaching and Learning Background in the United States of America

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This article identifies dramatic demographic changes in the United States with particular emphasis on shifts in the ethnic composition of school-age children. At this writing, nearly one of every five American students entering school is a native speaker of a language other than English. In addition the paper explores ESL background of the United Stats and many facets of the most commonly implemented bilingual program designs in today's American schools: pull-out, structured immersion, transitional, maintenance, and dual language. Since these policies and programs are not related to any socio cultural matters, the paper provides a socio cultural and historical background of language contact and attitudes out of which these programs grew and that each, of course, reflects.

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