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Franske adjektivisk afledte adverbier, der tager præpositionssyntagmer indledt med præpositionen à som argumenter - En valensgrammatisk undersøgelse

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The purpose of this dissertation is to map the valency structure of a subset of the French adverbs.More specifically, the dissertation seeks to answer the following questions: What valency structurefollows from the lexical content of the adverbs investigated? What is the nature of the semanticrelation established? What is the status of the valents relative to the adverb and relative to othervalents? The empirical object of investigation is focused on adverbs derived from adjectives whichtake prepositional phrases headed by the preposition à as their complement.In addition, the delimitation chosen for this dissertation is a class of adverbs which share the featurethat they carry the suffix -ment, which developed from the Latin noun mens, meaning“spirit/thought/mood/tenor”. It is argued that the fusion of an adverb and mens establishes thegeneral meaning [in an adjective spirit/thought/mood/tenor], i.e. the adverb retains the generalquality denoted by the adjective, but the meaning targets the verb situation (at clause level) or thequality (at phrasal level) which saturates the argument of the adverb. Following tradition, theanalysis adopted here, takes the verb situation to be realised by the predicate, and the quality to berealised by an adjective phrase, which may be realised by a past participle or, in rare cases, byanother adverb. Since the valent is required by the lexical content of the adverb, it is assumed,following Herslund and Sørensen, that the valent is a fundamental valent.Another important feature of the adverbs which are analysed in this dissertation is that theyestablish a relation between two entities. This means that in addition to its fundamental valent, theadverb takes a further valent which it links with the fundamental valent. This second valent isreferred to as the second valent of the adverb. The two valents are analysed as two relata in arelation.Unlike the fundamental valent, the second valent is always at phrasal level. When the adverbfunctions at clausal level, the second valent is realised as the prepositional object of the prepositionphrase headed by à. This realisation is, however, not possible when the adverb functions at phrasallevel. It is argued that this is a consequence of the fact that it is impossible to insert otherconstituents between the adverb and the adjective, adverb or participle which is modified by the adverb. The result is that where the second valent is realised, the adverb moves from preposition topostposition relative to its fundamental valent. In the data investigated the second valent denotesvery different entities such as situations denoted by verbs and qualities, but also objects and abstractentities.The individual adverbs which are investigated here each determine their valency. In general thereare different sources that allow us to uncover the core meaning of a word. The sources chosen inthis dissertation are: the semantic roles assigned by the adverbs, their symmetry, elements of sharedsemantics or partial synonymy, their morphology and etymological roots. In order to bring togetherthese different sources, the dissertation postulates a denotation design for each adverb. Theetymology of the adverbs has been a particularly helpful in determining the relation and valencythey establish. In addition to adverb and adjective suffixes, the majority of the adverbs investigatedhave a preposition in their synchronic morphological make-up which denotes a relation betweentwo entities: some adverbs contain both a preposition and a morpheme from another word class, e.g.comparativement and subséquemment, while others contain only a preposition, e.g. antérieurementand postérieurement. A very small subset does not contain a preposition, but only a single adverbmorpheme which denotes the relation in question, so, for instance, the adjectives par and similis,which have formed pareillement and semblablement, denote a relation between two relata. From anetymological perspective, a few adverbs, such as latéralement, do not denote a relation – so it isonly through the formal realisation of the preposition phrase that the relation is established.The dissertation maps the etymological and morphological structure of the adverb and the range offunctions that the adverb and its valents can have at clausal and phrasal level. The function of theadverb is relevant to the extent that the function affects its semantics and its valency structure. Theeffect of function is seen in some adverbs when they operate on clausal or on phrasal level and inother adverbs when they modify entire clauses or just the verb.

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Annemette Skot-Hansen

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