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Greening Goliaths versus Emerging Davids

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This paper proposes a model of how incumbents and new entrants engage in sustainableentrepreneurship. We suggest that in the early stages of an industry’s sustainabilitytransformation, new entrants (‘Emerging Davids’) are more likely than incumbents topursue sustainability-related opportunities. Incumbents react to the activities of newentrants by engaging in corporate sustainable entrepreneurship activities. While these‘Greening Goliaths’ are often less ambitious in their environmental and social goals, theymay have a broader reach due to their established market presence. This paper analysesthe interplay between ‘Greening Goliaths’ and ‘Emerging Davids’ and theorizes abouthow it is their compounded impact that promotes the sustainable transformation ofindustries.

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Kai Hockerts, Rolf Wüstenhagen

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