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Miljømærkningens pris - En analyse af gevinster og omkostninger ved miljømærkning

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image for OpenScout resource :: Miljømærkningens pris - En analyse af gevinster og omkostninger ved miljømærkning

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The overall objective of this project is to analyse how companies perceivethe costs and benefits from environmental labelling. The project onlycovers two labels: - the Nordic ‘Swan’ and the European ‘Flower’.The majority of the companies have to high or some extent achieved theirobjectives regarding the labels. Moreover, most companies believe thatenvironmental labelling improves image.One third of the companies state that the benefits from labelling exceed thecosts they have encountered. However, more than half of the companiesdo not feel that they have gained important advantages from environmentallabelling, e.g. from additional sales and earnings.With regards to the costs, environmental labelling does not necessitatehigh investments in new technology, recruitments, education etc. In otherwords, the cost barriers are in general small and most companies are ableto defray the costs of environmental labelling.In conclusion, most companies have at least to some extent achieved theirgoals, whereas the economic impacts from environmental labelling have sofar been limited. This does not necessarily imply that environmentallabelling is without importance. On the contrary, environmental labels holda number of potentials that make them attractive to companies. However,the prospects of environmental labelling depend on the values, attitudesand behaviour of all relevant stakeholders. Based on the results from theproject, we have listed a number of recommendations for the companies,the customers and the administrators, which might stimulate the futuredevelopment of environmentally labelled goods and services:* Companies. Even though companies in general do not experiencesubstantial advantages from environmental labelling, the labels mighthave a number of indirect effects, which might increase the companies’competitiveness in the long run. For instance, environmental labellingmight improve the companies’ image and serve as a door opener forSide 5Miljømærker og effekternew markets. Furthermore, the costs of environmental labelling are verylimited. However, companies also have to realise that environmentallabelling is not a panacea, which automatically generates a number ofpositive impacts.* Customers. It is often concluded that customers care about theenvironment and are willing to pay a price premium for environmentalfriendlygoods and services. However, this is not always the case. Theresults indicate that the customers’ actual purchasing behaviour is notnecessarily in accordance with ‘green’ purchasing policies. Forinstance, a number of companies have experienced that the publicprocurement practises are inconsistent with formal policies. Realisingthat the public sector is the driver of environmental labelling much hasto be done in order to improve the public procurement: - e.g. througheducation, campaigns and political action.* Administrators. In general, companies are not pleased with the feestructure of the labelling schemes. They think it would be fairer toimpose the fees on the companies who do not produce eco-labelledproducts. Moreover, when eco-labels in general do not increase profit ofproducts and services, the fees inevitable become an impediment to thefuture growth of environmental labelling. In general, there is a need toalign the fee structure as well as the administrative procedures to theactual costs and advantages of environmental labelling.

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Esben Rahbek Pedersen, Peter Neergaard, Mette Andersen, Line Bech, Marie-Louise Olsson

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