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Closed-loop supply chains

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There are numerous examples and cases available of products that are being reused via remanufacturing or recycling, or combinations of reuse activities (Thierry et al.1995, Krikke et al.1999, Guide 2000, Toktay et al 1999, Fleischmann 2000). However, these products and their supply chains are not all the same with respect to a number of critical dimensions, including product acquisition, reverse logistics, inspection, testing and disposition, remanufacturing, and distribution and selling of the remanufactured product. In the following sections the authors document a number of diverse products that are presently being remanufactured and describe their supply chains. After each case, they summarize and discuss the distinguishing features of the supply chains. Finally, they discuss the management of each of the different supply chain systems, and identify the key research issues.

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