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Global wholesale finance: structure, conduct, performance

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During the past decades many changes have affected the financial services industry, including the reconfiguration of the industry into two very broad sectors: wholesale finance, and retail and regional finance. The former is defined rather simply as financial services offered to clients which have direct access to capital markets, and the latter as services offered to those who do not have such access. Over the years, those with access to financial markets have been able to benefit from greatly increased competition, highly globalized financial markets and a variety of innovations designed to lower the cost of funds to user organizations. Those individuals or organizations (such as small and mid-sized corporations) lacking access to markets have also benefited from greater competition and improved technology, but these customers tend to select their providers because of prior relationships or advertising that engenders confidence in them.

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